Latrán No. 28

Latrán No. 28, overview, photo Jaromír Tůma Location:
Object is situated in part of town called Latrán, on the right bank of Vltava river and it is one of some reminders of former town fortification. (See History of Gates and Fortifications in Český Krumlov)

Object Describtion:
Round bastion of former town fortification with wall fragment and with conical ridge-tiled roof. The building has three floors. Object of late medieval origin from the beginning of 16th century, in the beginning of 19th century altered for habitational purposes. The building is round-shaped corner tower of former fortification of Nové Město (New Town) with keyhole-shaped emprasures. Markedly vertical conical roof was originally held on exserted ambit built of balks. The chimney was constructed during adapting of the fortification facility to habitable object.

Architectural and Historical Development:
Expert literature supposes that Český Krumlov had its own city-walls already in 13th century. But it is not verified. As lately as in era of Peter I. von Rosenberg, who granted Krumlov basic town privileges in 1347, is possible to document the existence of fortification. In the second half of 14th centrury the fortification system was enlarged and doubled with forward wall.

Original Latrán fortification is probably contained in mass of southern, eastern and north-eastern lines of town houses. Wall probably ended at Outer Latrán gate, situated between Latrán No. 73 and Latrán No. 74. The first written mention about Latrán fortification is agreement between Latrán and Krumlov (Inner Town) citizens from 1443 which was ratified by Jan II. Pokojný (Peaceful) and Jošt of Rosenberg from 27th September 1459.

Latrán citizens committed themselves to keep city walls (built by Rosenbergs ) on their own expences and to support garrisons that guarded towers and gates that are firstly mentioned there. Mentioned fortification also used walls of both Krumlov monasteries (monasteries of Order of St. Clara and minorites - see also Minorite Monastery in Český Krumlov) and probably contained entire Nové Město (New Town) which is mentioned as a new town quarter before 1374.

Latrán no. 28 - bastion at the Eggenberg brewery in Český Krumlov Late gothic reconstruction and monasteries area enlargements in the last quarter of 15th century and development of settlement of Nové Město (New Town - including area of todays brewery (Latrán No. 27), compeled up improved protection of this part of growing Český Krumlov. Forwarded city walls, built along Vltava river as far as Lažebnický bridge, fortificated entire New Town with gardens and convents. The city walls were probably built in 90\'s of 15th century and was borne up reconstruction of monasterial area, nowadays extended with regular house of beguines. Consecrating of chapter house of minorite monastery in 1491 was an important milestone in history of fortification.

North-eastern circumferential wall of convent became part of fortification which continued through facade of Latrán No. 78 as far as Latránská Gate between houses Latrán No. 78 and Latrán No. 80. This wall was built here sometimes before 1443. In connection with mentioned expanding of city walls was outer Latránská Gate reconstructed, eventually newly built. Rosenberg\'s historian and archivist Václav Březan reported about it: "Year 1505 Latránská Gate ... and tower below, which is today, as the bastion in New Town, being built."

Fragments, imprints of the walls and terrain situation indicate forwarded position of the bastion against possible attack from Vltava river. One wall connected bastion with north-eastern cloister corner of monastery, another one led to nothern corner of today\'s brewery.

In expert literature is supposed that the fortification was built by Rosenberg\'s bricklayers and stonecutters that were led by Mr. Jan Gezinger (who was nominated on 3rd August 1497 by Peter IV. von Rosenberg), stonecutter\'s chief of Rosenberg\'s rule, with law to establish stonecutter\'s guild in compliance with stone works in Passau. Mr. Jan Gezinger was problably in close artistic contact with builder Oldřich Pesnitzer who was on duty at Lower Bavaria\'s duke Jiří Bohatý (George the Rich - + 1504). In 1488 he led building works on massive contra-Ottoman fortress in Burghausen on left bank of Salzach. Fortification of this fortress is very analogous with New Town fortification, especially with round bastion. In July 1513 Pesnitzer was dealt in Krumlov Castle reconstruction. From next prominent masters of those times - stonecutters of Rosenberg\'s works - we know names of Hans Wechselberger and Wolfgang Wiesinger of Braunau. Meanwhile the authorship of the bastion can not be exactly figured.

Latrán no. 28, bastion - remains of original city fortifications History of the House Residents:
New Town bastion was used for original purposes till the end of 18th century. In 1805 prince Josef II. zu Schwarzenberg let adapt the bastion to flat of guard who watched nearby prince\'s timber collector on Vltava river. The tower is localized "between two prince\'s gardens and warehouse of timber".

The fortification wall partly existed because N. Urban, Český Krumlov surveyor, reported in 1805: "... Rundel an der städtischen Mauer ... ".

In the same year (1805) town municipality gave up tower, wall and surrounding area on behalf of prince. The fortification is visible on plan of Český Krumlov from 1827. Area of today\'s parking lot is described as monasterial gardens with nearby stew. After withdrawing of monastery, in 1800 Josef II. zu Schwarzenberg obtained in auction the houses of monastery, and houses of convent 30 years later. So he obtained monasterial gardens too.

Historic iconography does not introduce us any new knowledges. Detail picture of the bastion from Wolf photo studio from 1900 shows the same condition as nowadays.

New Town bastion is exceedingly significant cultural monument, one of few preserved fortificational objects that document historical development of town fortification.

Present Use:
The bastion is used as Bed and Breakfast "Ve Věži" nowadays.

Further information:
History of Gates and Fortifications in Český Krumlov
Latránská Gate
Minorite Monastery in Český Krumlov